Consensus Mechanisms:

PoW – Proof of Work

PoW and Blockchains presentation by Prof. Ittay Eyal (IC3)
The PoW concept article by the Nakamoto Institute
Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake by BlockGeeks
Vulnerability: Proof of Work vs. Proof of Stake

PoS – Proof of Stake

Strengths and Weaknesses of PoS Vitalik Buterin’s article on the strengths and weaknesses of staking contrasting to PoW algorithms
PoS Design Philosophy A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy by Vitalik Buterin
Ethereum PoS FAQ
The evolution of PoS Article on the evolution of PoS by Coin Telegraph
Weak Subjectivity in PoS Weak Subjectivity in PoS by Vitalik Buterin
The History of Casper – Chapter 1 Vlad Zamfir’s series on the history of Casper, Chapter Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5
On Stake and Consensus
Critic on the PoS Philosophy by Tuur Demeester
Extended Summary on Casper by Jon Choi
The Economics of the PoS consensus algorithm
Casper vs Tendermint
Minimal Slashing condition in Ethereum

DPoS – Delegated Proof of Stake

DPoS Introduction Introduction to DPoS by Bitshares
DPoS vs PoW Article by Daniel Larimer from Bitshares
Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS by Tendermint
Seeking Consensus on Consensus Delegated Proof of Stake and the Two Generals’ Problem

dBFT – Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Byzantine Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems by Prof. Kenneth Goodwin
dBFT vs PoW and PoS Antshare’s (now NEO) views on consensus
Intro to Ethermint BFT