Consensus Mechanisms:

PoW – Proof of Work

PoW and Blockchains presentation by Prof. Ittay Eyal (IC3)
The PoW concept article by the Nakamoto Institute
Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake by BlockGeeks
Vulnerability: Proof of Work vs. Proof of Stake

PoS – Proof of Stake

Strengths and Weaknesses of PoS Vitalik Buterin’s article on the strengths and weaknesses of staking contrasting to PoW algorithms
PoS Design Philosophy A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy by Vitalik Buterin
Ethereum PoS FAQ
The evolution of PoS Article on the evolution of PoS by Coin Telegraph
Weak Subjectivity in PoS Weak Subjectivity in PoS by Vitalik Buterin
The History of Casper – Chapter 1 Vlad Zamfir’s series on the history of Casper, Chapter Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5
On Stake and Consensus
Critic on the PoS Philosophy by Tuur Demeester
Extended Summary on Casper by Jon Choi
The Economics of the PoS consensus algorithm
Casper vs Tendermint
Minimal Slashing condition in Ethereum

DPoS – Delegated Proof of Stake

DPoS Introduction Introduction to DPoS by Bitshares
DPoS vs PoW Article by Daniel Larimer from Bitshares
Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS by Tendermint
Seeking Consensus on Consensus Delegated Proof of Stake and the Two Generals’ Problem

dBFT – Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance: this consensus mechanism uses game theory to verify blocks among professional miners

Byzantine Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems by Prof. Kenneth Goodwin
dBFT vs PoW and PoS Antshare’s (now NEO) views on consensus
Intro to Ethermint BFT

LPoS – Leased Proof-Of-Stake : users can develop their own tokens, which they can use to improve their security on their server farms;

PoeT – Proof of Elapsed Time: similar to a Proof of Work algorithm, but the difference is that this algorithm focuses more on the duration of the computation;

SBFT – Simplified Byzantine Fault Tolerance: there is one validator that can bundle multiple transactions to create a new block;

dBFT – Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance: this consensus mechanism uses game theory to verify blocks among professional miners;

DAG – Directed Acyclic Graphs: they do not have a blockchain structure, but often require users to validate two transactions if they wish to add one transaction. This verification can use a simplified Proof of Work algorithm;

PoA – Proof-of-Activity: a combination of Proof of Work and Proof of Stake to make sure that tokens offered as a reward are on time;

PoI – Proof-of-Importance: the more you send and receive transactions on the blockchain, the more tokens you will receive;

PoC – Proof-of-Capacity: used especially for decentralized storage as it utilities the availability and capacity of storage space on a user’s drive;

PoB – Proof-of-Burn: miners have to show proof that they burned tokens, which means sending them to verifiable un-spendable addresses;