Resources

Bitcoin for Beginners:

Nakamoto, Satoshi, 2009. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System
Szabo, Nick. Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks 
Szabo, Nick. The idea of smart contracts
Antonopoulos, Andreas, 2015. Mastering Bitcoin.
The Bitcoin Wiki
A developer-oriented series about Bitcoin
Bitcoin – Digital Signatures — Khan Academy

Understanding Blockchain:

A Brief History of Blockchain
History of Blockchain
What is Blockchain and Why Does it Matter

Is the Blockchain Revolution Real

Internet vs Blockchain - Fat Protocols 
Understanding the Lightning Network - Part 1 
Understanding the Lightning Network - Part 2 
Understanding the Lightning Network - Part 3
A (mostly) Visual collection of the Lightning Network
The Blockchain Academy Blog
Public & Permissioned Blockchains
Data availability & Erasure coding
A World without Middlemen
Cryptographic Identity in Blockchain — Blockchain at Berkeley
When do you need blockchain?

Blockchain Podcast:

Blockchain360
Chain360 Podcast
Government Blockchain Association Podcast

Bitcoin Advanced: 

Mining Bitcoin with pencil and paper
Bitcoin Transaction Malleability
Bitcoin Transaction Decoder
Scripts Playground
Official Developer Reference (version message)
Excellent Free API both for the bitcoin mainnet and testnet
Hash Functions — Decentralize Today

Ethereum:

Intro to Ethereum: The Internet’s Government — Karl Dot Tech
Ethereum Whitepaper
What is Ethereum — Motherboard
What Is Ethereum? Here's What You Need to Know
Ethereum: A Next Generation Smart Contract & Decentralized Application - Vitalik Buterin

Ethereum General Concepts
How Does Ethereum Work? — MetaMask
Bringing Blockchain Mainstream — HBS Digital Initiative
List of (some) Available OP_CODES
Ethereum: A Secure Decentralized Generalized Transaction Ledger  aka "The Yellow Paper"
Dapps for Beginners 
Ethereum Security Tips
Mostly good for more in depth EVM and inline assembly
Upgradeable Contracts
A noob Intro to programming Smart Contracts 

Sidechains:

Sidechains: Enabling Blockchain Innovations with Pegged Sidechains (Blockstream team)

Blockchain Myths

Common Misconceptions about Smart Contracts — Bits on Blocks
Scaling Ethereum to Billions of Users — Fred Ehrsam
Valid Criticism of Ethereum — Vitalik Buterin

Use Cases:

Crypto Tokens and Crowdfunding — Chris Dixon
Introduction to Self-Sovereign Identity — Bits on Blocks
Prediction Market — Wired
Peer to Peer trading — ConsenSys

Consensus Mechanisms:

PoW - Proof of Work

PoW and Blockchains presentation by Prof. Ittay Eyal (IC3)
The PoW concept article by the Nakamoto Institute
Proof of Work vs Proof of Stake by BlockGeeks
Vulnerability: Proof of Work vs. Proof of Stake

PoS - Proof of Stake

Strengths and Weaknesses of PoS Vitalik Buterin's article on the strengths and weaknesses of staking contrasting to PoW algorithms
PoS Design Philosophy A Proof of Stake Design Philosophy by Vitalik Buterin
Ethereum PoS FAQ
The evolution of PoS Article on the evolution of PoS by Coin Telegraph
Weak Subjectivity in PoS Weak Subjectivity in PoS by Vitalik Buterin
The History of Casper - Chapter 1 Vlad Zamfir's series on the history of Casper, Chapter Chapter 3Chapter 4Chapter 5
On Stake and Consensus
Critic on the PoS Philosophy by Tuur Demeester
Extended Summary on Casper by Jon Choi
The Economics of the PoS consensus algorithm
Casper vs Tendermint
Minimal Slashing condition in Ethereum

DPoS - Delegated Proof of Stake

DPoS Introduction Introduction to DPoS by Bitshares
DPoS vs PoW Article by Daniel Larimer from Bitshares
Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS by Tendermint
Seeking Consensus on Consensus Delegated Proof of Stake and the Two Generals' Problem

dBFT - Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance

Byzantine Fault Tolerance in Distributed Systems by Prof. Kenneth Goodwin
dBFT vs PoW and PoS Antshare's (now NEO) views on consensus
Intro to Ethermint BFT