Understanding Bitcoin

Bitcoin for Beginners:

Nakamoto, Satoshi, 2009. Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System
Szabo, Nick. Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks
How Bitcoin works
Antonopoulos, Andreas, 2015. Mastering Bitcoin.
The Bitcoin Wiki
A developer-oriented series about Bitcoin
Bitcoin – Digital Signatures — Khan Academy

Understanding Blockchain:

A Brief History of Blockchain
History of Blockchain
What is Blockchain and Why Does it Matter

Is the Blockchain Revolution Real

Internet vs Blockchain – Fat Protocols
Understanding the Lightning Network – Part 1
Understanding the Lightning Network – Part 2
Understanding the Lightning Network – Part 3
A (mostly) Visual collection of the Lightning Network
The Blockchain Academy Blog
Public & Permissioned Blockchains
Data availability & Erasure coding
A World without Middlemen
Cryptographic Identity in Blockchain — Blockchain at Berkeley
Cryptography behind blockchain
Hashing used in blockchain
When do you need blockchain?
Game theory and Network attacks
Do you even need blockchain
Bain on Blockchain in Financial Markets
Accentures “What every CEO should know about blockchain
Accenture’s “How Blockchain Technology Can Revolutionize Banking”
How Could Blockchain Technology Change Finance?

Bitcoin Advanced:

Mining Bitcoin with pencil and paper
Bitcoin Transaction Malleability
Bitcoin Transaction Decoder
Scripts Playground
Official Developer Reference (version message)
Excellent Free API both for the bitcoin mainnet and testnet
Hash Functions — Decentralize Today

Introduction to Blockchains

What is blockchain? The most disruptive tech in years by Lucas Mearian, Computerworld, January 18,2018
This article provides a high-level textual description of blockchains.

What is Blockchain?, Centre for International Governance Innovation, YouTube, January 4, 2018
This 6:26 minute video provides a quick overview of the operation of blockchains and their importance.

Blockchains: How They Work and Why They’ll Change the World by Morgen E. Peck, IEEE Spectrum, September 28, 2017
This article provides more depth than the video and introduces the concept of smart contracts.

Blockchain by Margaret Rouse, TechTarget, SearchCIO.com, July 26, 2017

This is a collection of 11 articles on blockchain technology.

Decentralized Blockchain-Based Electronic Marketplaces by Hemang Subramanian, Communications of the ACM, January 2018 (A video providing an overview of blockchains is available here.)

Understanding The DAO Attack by David Siegel, Coindesk, June 25, 2016

Realizing Policy Goals through Blockchain Technology, Centre for International Governance Innovation, July 6, 2017


Wall Street Firms to Move Trillions to Blockchains in 2018 by Amy Nordrum, IEEE Spectrum, September 29,, 2017

Do You Need a Blockchain? by Morgen E. Peck, IEEE Spectrum, September 29, 2017 Money pp 239-278, September 1, 2016

50+ Examples of How Blockchains are Taking Over the World by Matteo Gianpietro Zago, Medium, May 30, 2018

Blockchain Platforms:


Intro to Ethereum: The Internet’s Government — Karl Dot Tech
Ethereum Whitepaper
What is Ethereum — Motherboard
What Is Ethereum? Here’s What You Need to Know
Ethereum: A Next Generation Smart Contract & Decentralized Application – Vitalik Buterin

Ethereum General Concepts
How Does Ethereum Work? — MetaMask
Bringing Blockchain Mainstream — HBS Digital Initiative
List of (some) Available OP_CODES
Ethereum: A Secure Decentralized Generalized Transaction Ledger  aka “The Yellow Paper”
Dapps for Beginners
Ethereum Security Tips
Mostly good for more in depth EVM and inline assembly
Upgradeable Contracts
A noob Intro to programming Smart Contracts

Hyperledger Fabric:

Quick Intro to Hyperledger fabric
Great Youtube series on Hyperledger fabric by Ivan
The Founders Handbook

R3 and Corda:

Corda: An Introduction – Whitepaper
Corda: A Distributed Ledger
The Corda Platform: An Introduction


Sidechains: Enabling Blockchain Innovations with Pegged Sidechains (Blockstream team)

Thoughts on Blockchain Technologies

Blockchain’s Broken Promises by Nouriel Roubini, Project Syndicate, January 26, 2018

The Blockchain Pipe Dream by Nouriel Roubini and Preston Byrne, Project Syndicate, March 5, 2018

Why Blockchain Will Survive, Even If Bitcoin Doesn’t: Latest blockchain applications could bring overdue change to critical, if unsexy, functions in shipping, real estate and … diamonds by Christopher Mims, The Wall Street Journal, March 11, 2018

Blockchain is not only crappy technology but a bad vision for the future by Kai Stinchcombe, Medium, April 5, 2018
“Projects based on the elimination of trust have failed to capture customers’ interest because trust is actually so damn valuable.”

The Blockchain Movement is Underway. What Should CEOs Know?, FTI Journal, May 2018

187 THINGS THE BLOCKCHAIN IS SUPPOSED TO FIX, by Eric Griffin, Wired, May 25, 2018

Alternatives to Blockchain by Jimmy Song, Medium, May 23, 2018

Monetary Policy in the Digital Age: Crypto assets may one day reduce demand for central bank money by Dong He, International Monetary Fund, June 2018
This article analyzes the consequences of replacing a fiat currency with a cryptocurrency.

Top banker batters Bitcoin for sucky scalability, security: Australia’s Reserve Bank sees no need for national cryptocurrencies, for now by Simon Sharwood, The Register, June 27 2018
Tony Richard, head of payments policy at Australia’s Reserve Bank, highlights the scaling problems associated with the Bitcoin currency.

This Year’s Blockchain Craze Mirrors the Early Days of the Internet by Iris Zhao, The Council on Foreign Relations, December 20, 2018

Remember Bitcoin? Some Investors Might Want to Forget by Nellie Bowles, The New York Times, December 27, 2018

Raising Money in the Crypto World Has Gotten a Lot Harder: The market for initial coin offerings, which boomed last year, has ground to a halt by Paul Vigna, The Wall Street Journal, March 31, 2019

Amid Bitcoin Uncertainty, ‘the Smart Money Knows That Crypto Is Not Ready’ by Nathaniel Popper, The New York Times, April 2, 2019